We demand true accountability for Bassnectar's victims. It is up to Ashton Lorin to decide if he is being 'Called Out' or 'Called In'.
This article was co-authored by Victim Advocate Kay Brown MA, CA, RA.
[Content Warning: Themes of sexual violence and sexual contact with minors]
First and foremost, if you find yourself reading this and are a survivor of violence, whether it be sexual, domestic, or another form – please know that what you experienced is not your fault. The violence that occurs is caused by an individual or group who decides to perpetrate that act of violence.
We recognize that remaining silent is being complicit in the harm that is being done to others. When we as a community quiet rumors and accounts of experiences we dismiss victims. Here at Fresh Music Freaks, we support the voices of the often unheard, ignored, and silenced. We are taking this time and this moment to use our privilege and platform as a gatekeeper in the music industry to shine the light on an area of darkness that has gone on for far too long. We see you and hear you. Your stories are valid. We will not be complicit in the way the world has tried to erase you, for “erasure is a form of oppression, the refusal to see” (20). People respond to things in many different ways, so know that however you are feeling regarding your experience is ok with us. You deserve to process things in whatever way you determine is best for you.
We support whatever makes you feel more empowered and in control of addressing the things you have experienced. We stand with however you decide to take back your power. You are the expert on your life and your experiences. Whatever you determine to be the right choice for you deserves to be honored. If you decide to change your mind over time, that change also deserves to be respected. While we hold space for your story, we also want you to know that you do not owe anyone (including us) your story, your experience, or your pain, to prove that your narrative is real. It’s completely normal for things like this to bring up differing feelings since things like this happen to a lot of people, it’s ok to reach out for help. The road to healing takes many paths and we work to provide choices and options, including professional resources, that are available to you without charge. If you find yourself wanting to talk about or process your emotions while reading this, at the bottom of this article we have included a list of resources that are available for you.
A common question among those who work in the field of sexual assault is, “Which term is better to use, victim or survivor?” Although both terms are appropriate, they serve different needs. The term victim typically refers to someone who has recently experienced a sexual assault; additionally, this word is commonly used when discussing a crime or when referencing the criminal justice system. The term survivor often refers to an individual who is going or has gone through the recovery process; additionally, this word is used when discussing the short- and long-term effects of sexual violence. Some people identify as a victim, while others identify as a survivor. The best way to be respectful is to ask for their preference (15). Both victim and survivor will be used in this article moving forward.
You didn’t have to spend too much time in the Electronic Music community to hear whispers, rumors, and allegations of sexual contact with minors involving Bassnectar, or Lorin Ashton. On the surface, he strikes his followers as a social justice warrior, often participating in online activism, donating money to different causes, and encouraging his fans to vote. On his website, there is a section dedicated to updates where he usually updates his fans on events and music but occasionally drops think pieces on topics varying from political opinions to anti-racism.
One think piece titled “Election 2016” written on November 7th, 2016 went into depth on his personal opinions surrounding who he was voting for in 2016 and exactly why. In the think piece, he pointed out one of the reasons he would not be voting for Donald Trump was that he says and does things to publicly demean women. Lorin Ashton implores readers to consider “the multiple allegations of sexual assault and the fact that he has been caught on tape bragging about getting away with groping women because he’s rich and famous.” He goes on to quote Seth Meyers who also points out a few more atrocities in terms of sexual assault committed by Donald Trump, you can read the entire think piece here (1).
In 2018, Lorin took to Facebook to write another think piece in solidarity with gender equality during the time that assertions against Datsik surfaced. He begins the lengthy piece by stating “Justice, fairness, equality, and peace should be a right for all humans. I, and my entire team, stand shoulder to shoulder with victims of sexual abuse, domestic violence, sexism, racism, homophobia, or abuse of any kind.”
Over time, we begin to see a regular pattern of behavior from Lorin Ashton. He publicly states he opposes and denounces sexual abuse and those who commit such acts, despite the whispers and the allegations of his own inappropriate misconduct. You could have spent some time on Google looking for mention of the allegations of his involvement with underage or borderline underage girls and come across virtually nothing, that is up until a few days ago. An account on Instagram called @evidenceagainstbassnectar appeared and since it’s creation it has begun to post stories and comments from underage victims, younger of age victims, their friends, or other industry sources dating as far back as a decade ago. Here are a few posts, each should be treated objectively with care and we recommend taking the time to read through the Instagram page to form your own opinion as more posts appear everyday.
Why don’t victims come forward at the time of the incidents?
It is often extremely hard for victims to come forward with their experiences and furthermore their identity. Lest we forget one of the most notorious cases of sexual assault in the last decade, the Stanford rape case. We knew her story long before we knew her name. We knew her as the “Stanford rape victim” and Emily Doe long before we knew her as Chanel Miller. An article written in The Atlantic by Megan Garber on Chanel Miller’s book Know My Name eloquently describes societal issues that often deter victims from identifying themselves, and ultimately from coming forward with their stories (4). The article states,
“We are not used to hearing—to knowing—the details of sexual violence. We are not used to experiencing the daily facts of trauma through the extreme subjectivity of a memoir. The American legal system, particularly when it comes to these matters, is instead largely calibrated toward silence. It anonymizes survivors. It asks them to speak, for the most part, only when spoken to. It tells stories about them, ostensibly for them. It exists within a culture that remains profoundly ashamed about sexual violence, preferring to discuss such matters in hushed tones and polite euphemisms. The effect is often to dehumanize the survivor. It is also to mistake the survivor as the person whose actions are on trial. ‘The assault is never personal,’ Miller writes. ‘The blaming is.’”
While Chanel Miller received a conviction for her rapist, Brock Turner was sentenced to just six months in jail and only served three of them. With Turner’s sentencing and other victims in mind Miller stated in Know My Name, “A system does not exist for you. The pain of this process couldn’t be worth it. These Crimes are not crimes but inconveniences. You can fight and fight and for what?”
We often seem to place the burden of proof and justice on victims without fully thinking through what that means. It is extremely difficult for victims of sexual assault to find justice and peace by speaking up. Had these girls processed what Lorin Ashton involved them in, in a timeline deemed acceptable by the American justice system would it have brought them justice and/or peace? Beyond the terrorizing judgments from the court of public opinion and fandom, 0.9% of sexual assault cases get referred to prosecutors, 0.5% of cases will lead to a felony conviction, and even fewer will end in incarceration. As a result of these failures by the criminal justice system, three out of four sexual assaults are unreported. (3)
“The story of sexual predation as an inconvenience, in popular music is so old. It’s been going on for decades, centuries. Nobody wants to give up the music they love and nobody wants to think badly of the artists they love” Ann Power, an NPR Music Critic states in the third section of dream hampton’s Surviving R. Kelly (8). The hit songs from influential artists become connected to specific points in fans’ lives and relationships built with other fans. It becomes increasingly difficult for them to walk away from the artists that harm others, which allows the criminal behavior to become compartmentalized and looked away from – instead of acknowledging that individuals should not support those that harm others. At the intersection of these failures of fandom and our justice system, we fail those who fall victim to artists who use their platforms for evil.
What power does a platform give?
This post is Lorin Ashton’s response to the posts made on the @evidenceagainstbassnectar Instagram account in his facebook group, Love Here. The post acknowledges a history of behavior where Lorin got involved with women who were “younger than [him] and in college,” while he was touring through his 20’s and 30’s. He casts the ultimate outcome for his past actions on victims’ “regret” saying, “Recently the women in my life have helped me understand that while every interaction was positive in the moment, there is potential for people’s feelings to change over time. There is always the possibility that someone could decide later that they regret their decisions…” He even goes on to state “I now understand the dangerous power imbalance that is present when engaging romantically with someone who may identify as a fan, and I wish I had been more careful in all of those encounters.” Effectively, the post ignores all allegations from the girls who have come forward about Lorin having an inappropriate relationship with them when they were minors. His sentiments center him and the intent of his actions, instead of the impact he had in the lives of those that interacted with him. Not having the intent to harm people does not mean that there was no impact of harm done to them.
When we hear “children” we often think of school-aged children. By legal definition though, a child refers to minors, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority (21). The lowest age of majority in the United States, and most common, is 18 years old. The age of consent may vary from state to state, but everyone in the United States under the age of 18 is a child by legal definition. While Lorin Ashton claimed the girls were college-aged, an overwhelming number of victim statements coming forward on the @evidencegainstbassnectar Instagram were minors. This includes a recording of Lorin Ashton himself addressing a 17-year-old directly in a recording. As well as a recording of a phone call where Lorin avoids addressing a victim questioning him if their relationship when she was 17 fell under statutory rape. Instead of directly addressing her question, he gaslights her by asking if she wants his accountability to result in him in jail in Tennessee.
A paper that is available through University of New Hampshire’s Crimes Against Children Research Center called “Statutory sex crime relationships between juveniles and adults: A review of social scientific research” goes into depth on said power imbalance(s) and the impacts of different dynamics of said power imbalance(s). In this paper, the impact of and reactions to the inappropriate relationships are detailed. It states, “One of the most contentious issues surrounding statutory relationships concerns how to assess their possible negative impacts. Many youthful participants deny harm or describe them in positive terms, but a variety of researchers have argued that these cannot be taken at face value.” (6)
One of the three arguments as to why a younger person on the disadvantaged end of a power imbalance in these relationships may deny harm or describe the relationship in positive terms is, “that the negative impact of such relationships may be a delayed reaction. That is, youthful participants may later come to understand the inherent power differential in the relationship, the subtle manipulation they were subjected to, and the adult’s use of implied or actual threats, and will then see the harm that was done to them” (6). So what Lorin Ashton may describe as his victim’s “regretting” their involvement with him may actually be his victims coming to realize the previously manipulated reality of their involvement with him.
In one of the recordings linked above, the victim stutters through statements such as “I didn’t know who I was,” “why would a seventeen year old even–” and “I was so impressionable, I had no idea who I was. And you coming in with, you know, you have this status and you’re older than me.” She now calls their relationship beyond inappropriate, even though at 17 they shared excitement about her success in school.
What is grooming and why does it matter to understand?
Grooming is defined as “the process where a child is befriended by an adult in an attempt to gain the child’s confidence and trust in order to lower the child’s inhibitions in preparation of sexual exploitation and/or abuse” (19). A study investigated whether participants could recognize grooming behaviors, and if so, identify which stages of the process were most easily identified. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes describing the stages of the grooming process. The results revealed no differences in likelihood ratings that the person in the vignette was a child molester and would commit sexual abuse between any of the conditions, suggesting that people may be unable to identify potentially predatory behaviors (19). This is important to know because grooming behaviors often go unnoticed or undetected while empirical research has found that nearly half of the offenders who commit sexual acts against children utilize what are known as “grooming” behaviors (19).
After locking in on a victim, the next step of the grooming process is gaining access. One of the many ways this is done is by assuming the role of a mentor. Lorin asserts himself as a mentor to girls and this can be seen in previously linked Instagram posts. In an email to a high school student, Lorin gives encouragement and support for the girl’s achievement while requesting she writes him a paper as well for his review. It is clear from the recorded phone call where his status is pointed out by the victim that it played a part in this dynamic, an older successful man takes interest in the personal development of minors. This moves into the next step in grooming which is gaining trust, often with the end goal of isolating a victim. This is considered a central part of the grooming process where it establishes cooperation with the victim. This is done by befriending a victim, showering them with attention, and learning about their interests. A groomer will portray themselves as non-threatening who a victim can talk to and spend time with. Much like in the emails where we see Lorin showering the girl with compliments, attempting to extend himself to understand her problems, and asking if he can hear her voice and talk to her soon. After gaining access and trust a groomer will move in (19). By grooming these minors, Lorin Ashton is manipulating and coercing them into sexual relationships like a victim states anonymously below.
Why is it Difficult to Know if People are Involved in Harmful Behavior?
Individuals that abuse others often have protective mechanisms that reduce the likelihood of public detection of their harmful actions towards others. In order to keep perpetrating, these individuals need to maintain some level of credibility, influence and importance, to keep their access to vulnerable populations (11).
“…our first instinct may be to question how they were able to keep their crimes hidden. For many of us, it can be difficult to comprehend how red flags could go unnoticed, be explained away, or even be ignored. This can be especially true if there are multiple victims or witnesses and when the abuse takes place over years. Still, this pattern is not uncommon — it’s time to ask ourselves what we are missing… Before we jump in, it’s important to remember that the vast majority of adults that work with children — from teachers, to coaches, to doctors, and mentors — are safe people who have good intentions and want to protect children from harm. However, just because someone seems like a safe, reputable, and trusted figure, doesn’t always mean they are. By becoming aware of the following tactics, we can feel empowered to take red flags seriously and challenge problematic behaviors” (11).
Predatory protective factors can include: having a position of trust and respect in their community to place them above suspicion, targeting of victims that have less power than they do (including vulnerable populations), ”leveraging misconceptions and misinformation,” defying predatory stereotypes of appearance, having access and the ability for institutions to help “cover up the abuse” and strategically grooming their targets (11). These protective factors support concealment and lack of detection of the perpetration of abuse. Combining this with data demonstrating that most survivors of sexual violence typically know the individual(s) that assaulted them, and it is easy to see how perpetrators of harm operate in plain sight (18).
Myra Strand, a Nationally Credentialed Victim Advocate, and Chief Servant Leader of Strand Squared collaborated to create this training video to help illustrate how perpetrators of harm can operate in plain sight (10). The video goes on to discuss how, all individuals all have three personas – one that is the most outwardly facing, one that the people closest to them see, and one that they do not outwardly share. These layers can decrease the ease of detection for harmful behaviors, including those that are acted out on others. It goes on to demonstrate that a person can be well-respected for their good work and contributions to the community, but this does not mean they are not capable of committing abuse or harm to others.
Where is the accountability?
If Lorin Ashton stands by the statements he has made such as “I want to look at how I lived in the past and learn ways I could have unintentionally caused harm to others,” and “I, and my entire team, stand shoulder to shoulder with victims of sexual abuse, domestic violence, sexism, racism, homophobia, or abuse of any kind;” as well as stand by his disgust in men like Donald Trump it is time for him to also acknowledge and take accountability for the involvement he had in inappropriate relationships and behaviors with young girls. Lorin states that,
“In conflict resolution, there is a distinction between “calling someone out” and “calling someone in” – calling someone out is good when there is a person in power who acts badly and is untouchable – or thinks they are. Calling out Donald Trump for his endless list of egregious crimes is something I believe is good. Calling Out a man who raped someone or assaulted someone is good. Calling out is about anger and unaccountability. Nobody would need to call me out because I am 100% available and responsive to anyone from my past who wants to communicate constructively. Calling in is about healing and being constructive. Calling in is about learning, growing, and changing. I feel called in to reflect on my personal life, and feel entirely open to anyone who feels as though they want to process, heal, or make amends.”
Lorin has discussed how he would, “try to build a bridge, to try and find a constructive solution, to work together toward healing and resolution.” While on a surface level, it may seem genuine, it also builds upon the narrative of him having control over the situation, instead of allowing the individual impacted to self-determine what is in their own best interest and encouraging them to seek out what they feel is appropriate. He continues on with giving a distinction between “calling someone out” and “calling someone in,” while claiming “nobody would need to call me out because I am 100% available and responsive to anyone from my past who wants to communicate constructively” – this again follows the narrative of him having the power and control to determine what way things are discussed, as well as what resolution he (or his legal team) determines is appropriate. A person that has caused another harm should not be put into the place of power and control to determine what methods of healing are available, and what consequences occur, in holding them accountable for the pain and impact they have had on those they have harmed.
Bassnectar has denied statements and accounts circulating about him involving sexual violence, including having sexual contact with minors. In a statement in reference to the victim statements on Twitter Lorin said, “I am stepping back from my career and I am stepping down from my position of power and privilege in this community because I want to take responsibility and accountability. I feel intense compassion for anyone I may have hurt. I truly hope you allow me a chance to work together toward healing. The rumors you are hearing are untrue, but I realize some of my past actions have caused pain, and I am deeply sorry. I am handing off our nonprofit Be Interactive to a diverse team to continue without my involvement moving forward. Sometime in the future I may share more thoughts on these matters, but for now, please take care of each other and I wish you all the brightest future.” Though in the post to his Facebook group Love Here he says much more.
Lorin uses phrases like “real victim(s)” and “real sexual violence.” The United States has a history of law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, jurors, and beyond making decisions about what constitutes real sexual violence, that has continued to deny survivors of sexual violence any form of justice from within the system. Police reports since before the 1970s have contained problematic language to diminish the credibility of victims of sexual violence (5). These reports and interactions are then used to determine whether or not the state brings forward a case against the listed perpetrator. This means that individuals that did not fit into the stereotype of an ideal victim likely will never see their day in court. What does a “real rape” look like, according to Criminology?
“Real rapes have several defining features: They are perpetrated against unsuspecting females who are ambushed in blitz attacks. The offender is a complete stranger. He is armed with a weapon and pounces out of the darkness to surprise his quarry. The injured party is too virtuous and above reproach – she is too young, too old, or too inexperienced to be faulted for attracting his attention and arousing his desires. At the time of the attack, she is engaged in a ‘wholesome’ activity that is above criticism. Even though she faces grave dangers, she dares to fight back, resists to her utmost, and suffers severe injuries in a futile attempt to fend him off. Eyewitness glimpse parts of the struggle and hear her cries for help. As soon as she escapes from his clutches, she reports the crime to the police. Detectives find forensic evidence that backs up all her charges of being caught off guard, confronted with a weapon, brutally assaulted, physically overpowered, and helplessly compelled to submit to his demands. Finally, the assailant, who is obviously deeply disturbed, quickly confessed when captured” (14, p. 294).
These examples are what society feels are the “ideal types” and are “readily identifiable and raise few legal questions or moral doubts,” and any victim of violence that does not fit into this box is seen as less credible and less of a victim, while often being denied justice (14, p. 294).
With an American sexually assaulted once every 73 seconds, and only five out of every 1,000 perpetrators ending up in prison, there seems to be incongruence between what “real” sexual violence looks like according to media perception and what occurs in the United States (7). With the uncovering of thousands of untested, as well as lost, sexual assault kits across the country, that span decades, our criminal justice system continues to fail victims of sexual violence with each passing day, as only certain “real rapes” with perfect victims are given the priority for prosecution (5).
Sexual violence includes many forms of activity. By claiming that any form of sexual violence is not real, or is not that bad, it dismisses the survivor’s experience as not deserving to hold space, as well as minimizing the irreversible impact it has had on that individual. Also, “if the victim’s behavior can be criticized, then the ‘tragic misunderstanding’ is not entirely the offender’s fault,” or so it is attempted to be framed (14, p. 297).
Lorin further offers to continue his control, by offering a free therapy session to individuals that have either experienced sexual abuse or have a friend that has. While receiving adequate support for trauma is important, it is also beneficial to understand that the processing around trauma and facilitation of these resources is best handled by experts in this area. His team is not bound by the confidentiality and anonymity in the same way that Rape Crisis Centers are, nor are they credentialed, trained, or licensed in how to effectively provide support for survivors of violence. When sexual violence is the least reported violent crime in the US, and survivors often feel shame and embarrassment, it is imperative to get individuals to adequate and appropriate resources as soon as possible (18).
Lorin continues to state, “… outside of my personal life, if I hear ANY woman voice concern or mention something abusive, I am her ally.” He then mentions that his first instinct when encountering anyone that has been harmed is to protect, but fails to ask his fanbase to give the individuals involved in these instances privacy. Also, the acts that are denied in responses by him feel calculated, as he denies very specific criminal offenses – “rape” “sexual misconduct” and “sexual assault,” but does not deny any other forms of causing harm or sexual violence.
Lorin has said in an update on his website, “we can stand in solidarity and learn more about how to participate in social change, never looking away just because it’s hard to witness” (1).
So, Lorin Ashton, are you being called out by these women and their stories, or are you being called in? Where is the accountability that doesn’t blame your victims for your actions or deny their experiences? Will you stand in solidarity and learn?
*Featured Image via Rukes*
About Sexual Violence
The National Sexual Violence Resource Center defines sexual violence as “ forc(ing) or manipulat(ing) someone else into unwanted sexual activity without their consent. Reasons someone might not consent include fear, age, illness, disability, and/or influence of alcohol or other drugs” (18).
Forms of sexual violence include, “rape or sexual assault, child sexual assault and incest, unwanted sexual contact/touching, sexual harrassment, sexual exploitation, showing one’s genetals or naked body to other(s) without consent, masturbating in public, and watching someone in a private act without their knowledge or permission” (18).
*False reporting rates – NSVRC*
“Nearly 1 in 5 women (18.3%) and 1 in 71 men (1.4%) in the United States have been raped at some time in their lives, including completed forced penetration, attempted forced penetration, or alcohol/drug facilitated completed penetration” (2).
What is Consent?
RAINN defines consent as, “agreement between participants to engage in sexual activity.” (16). While laws vary by state to state on the legal definition, individuals can still learn more about how it plays out in day-to-day life. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center defines consent as, “an enthusiastic and clear agreement to engage in sexual activity with a partner(s). This means you need to ask your partner if they want to engage in sexual activity with you, instead of assuming that they do” (17).
Hotlines can be one way to potentially process your feelings and experiences, but they can also be a tool for much more than that. In addition to processing emotions, it is common for hotlines to receive calls from:
- Individuals that can’t sleep due to a nightmare
- Individuals that desire help find resources to work towards healing
- Friends or family wanting to learn how to best support a survivor in their life
- Individuals feeling anxious
If you are in the United States, and under the age of 18, laws vary state to state on mandatory reporting, more on your state’s laws regarding mandatory reporting here (9). Mandatory reporting occurs when an individual employed by an agency receives a disclosure that an individual that is of a vulnerable population – these can include people who are elderly, people with disabilities, people under the age of 18 and can include instances of abuse, neglect and sexual violence.
If you are desiring supportive resources and are over the age of 18, and the instance you will be disclosing occurred while you were over the age of 18 you can call RAINN’s confidential hotline at 1-800-656-HOPE, or chat them online here at RAINN CHAT (13). RAINN’s hotline will redirect you to a local support center in your area.
If you are presently under the age of 18 and experiencing sexual violence, or were during the time of your experience of sexual violence, you can call the Cleveland Rape Crisis Center’s Confidential and Anonymous Hotline via call or text at (216) 619-6192, or online via Chat here. Please note: that if you are scheduling for a full client intake for further services and support beyond the Confidential and Anonymous hotline, CRCC may be required to report regarding abuse, neglect and sexual violence, these can include people who are elderly, people with disabilities, or people under the age of 18.
Good Night Out Vancouver is “a non-profit society committed to building capacity to prevent & respond to sexual harassment & assault in hospitality, music, arts & nightlife.” Due to conversation regarding another artist, Good Night Out Vancouver’s founder created a thread of resources for those who these topics may be triggering to. The next resource is from the same organization, it is a Google Document with information and resources for those who work in the music industry to use their power and step up to make our community a safer place.
- Ashton, Lorin. “Bassnectar – Election 2016.” BASSNECTAR ALL COLORS, Bassnectar, 7 Nov. 2016, www.bassnectar.net/2016/11/election-2016/.
- Black, M. C., Basile, K. C., Breiding, M. J., Smith, S. G., Walters, M. L., Merrick, M. T., Chen, J., & Stevens, M. R. (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 summary report. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/NISVS_Report2010-a.pdf
- “The Criminal Justice System: Statistics.” RAINN, www.rainn.org/statistics/criminal-justice-system.
- Garber, Megan. “The Paradox at the Heart of ‘Know My Name’.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 2 Oct. 2019, www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2019/10/chanel-miller-know-my-name-and-unbelievable-review/599191/.
- Hargitay, Mariska. I Am Evidence. HBO, 2017.
- Hines, Denise A., and David Finkelhor. “Statutory Sex Crime Relationships between Juveniles and Adults: A Review of Social Scientific Research.” Aggression & Violent Behavior, vol. 12, no. 3, May 2007, pp. 300–314. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.avb.2006.10.001.
- “Scope of the Problem: Statistics.” RAINN, www.rainn.org/statistics/scope-problem.
- “Sex Tape Scandal.” Dream Hampton. Surviving R. Kelly, season 1, episode 3, Lifetime, January 4th, 2019.
- “State Law Database.” RAINN, apps.rainn.org/policy/?_ga=2.156533240.2104456432.1593815902-1083049666.1593487367.
- Strand Squared. “Third Persona.” YouTube, uploaded by Strand Squared, 14 July 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJ-OE55q1gU.
- Sullivan, Susan. “6 Reasons Why Abusers Like Larry Nassar Avoid Detection.” National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2 May 2019, www.nsvrc.org/blogs/6-reasons-why-abusers-larry-nassar-avoid-detection.
- Thames Valley Police. “Tea and Consent.” YouTube, uploaded by Thames Valley Police, 16 Nov. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=pZwvrxVavnQ.
- “The National Sexual Assault Online Hotline.” Terms of Service – Online Hotline, RAINN, hotline.rainn.org/online.
- “Victims of Rapes and Other Sexual Assaults.” Crime Victims: an Introduction to Victimology, by Andrew Karmen, Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2013, pp. 290-328.
- Victim or Survivor: Terminology from Investigation Through Prosecution. Sexual Assault Kit Initiative, sakitta.org/toolkit/docs/Victim-or-Survivor-Terminology-from-Investigation-Through-Prosecution.pdf.
- “What Consent Looks Like.” RAINN, www.rainn.org/articles/what-is-consent.
- “What Is Consent?: Cleveland Rape Crisis Center.” CRCC, 3 Jan. 2020, clevelandrapecrisis.org/resources/resource-library/featured/consent/.
- “What Is Sexual Violence? Fact Sheet.” NSVRC, National Sexual Violence Resource Center, 2010, www.nsvrc.org/sites/default/files/2012-03/Publications_NSVRC_Factsheet_What-is-sexual-violence_1.pdf.
- Wolf, Molly R., et al. “Grooming Child Victims into Sexual Abuse: A Psychometric Analysis of Survivors’ Experiences.” Journal of Sexual Aggression, vol. 24, no. 2, July 2018, pp. 215–224. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/13552600.2018.1504555.
- Miller, Chanel. Know My Name. Penguin Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
- “Child.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 July 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child.